What is Chromatin Remodelling?

What is Chromatin Remodelling?

To understand chromatin modelling, let's first recall that genes are composed of DNA which is wrapped around histones, a protein complex. Chromatin is this complex of DNA and histones, and forms the basic structure of chromosomes.At specific gene locations, chromatin may exist in either an open state or a closed state. Open state permits gene expression and closed state silences gene expression. Chromatin remodeling is a change in this gene-specific chromatin structure that can change which genes are expressed and which are silenced. This is done through reversible placement of small chemical groups—acetyl groups, methyl groups and others. These chemical groups may be placed onto specific sites on either the DNA or the histone proteins, and there may also be concerted changes to the contacts between DNA and histones using enzyme-catalyzed topographical means. The protein/enzymes that help perform chromatin modelling are known as CMPs or chromatin modelling proteins. CMPs can either add a chemical group to a specific site on histone or DNA, or remove a chemical group. Other CMPs simply bind to marked sites without adding a chemical group or removing one; finally there are CMPs that drive topographical changes to histone-DNA interactions within chromatin. Chromatin remodelling - its location, time and method -determines gene expression, or which genes in a cell are turned “on” or “off” at any particular time. Altering CMPs can lead to disease, and re-altering is a valid therapeutic approach towards such diseases.

What is a monoclonal antibody?

A monoclonal antibody or mAb is an antibody produced in the laboratory from a single ancestral plasma cell

What Is Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma?

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (also known as non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma or NHL) is a cancer of the lymphocytes, a type of white blood cells and an important part of the immune system.

What is INI1 and SMARCA4?

INI1 and SMARCA4 are subunits of SWI/SNF, a chromatin modifying protein complex, which opposes the activity of PRC2, the complex within which EZH2 resides.